School–Based Management: Promoting Special Education Programs in Local Schools

Ingrid R. Yap, Mercedes P. Adorio


This is a qualitative study of 11 schools and six school divisions selected to expand and organize Special Education-Inclusive Education Program in the Third Elementary Education Program (TEEP) of the Department of Education in the Philippines. Schoolbased management (SBM) became the integrating framework of TEEP three years into the project. The study investigated how the local schools in selected pilot areas have
used SBM to address the issues on (1) access to formal school, (2) quality of educational experiences, and (3) stakeholders’ participation in school activities that are relevant to the interests of children with special needs. Results show that most schools gauge access by the number of identified students with special needs. Quality is linked to the availability of SPED teachers and resources. Participation is associated with
parents’ involvement in their special child’s individualized education plan.

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