The Violence of Cultural Difference: Accommodation and Oppositional Practices of Muslim Pupils in a Public Primary School in Metro Manila

  • Gerry M. Lanuza Department of Sociology, UP Diliman
  • Cristina Bernadette Gonzales Quezon City Public Elementary School Teacher


Primary schools are supposed to provide a haven for young people to learn respect for individual differences and cultural diversity. However, schools often do not acknowledge cultural differences among their pupils or do not consciously consider the dynamics of these cultural differences in the school, which may lead to a simmering violence. This paper is an attempt to document the ways in which minority Muslim pupils in a primary public school develop different strategies of accommodation, assimilation, and resistance to the mainstream culture of the school.


Muslims, Symbolic violence, Cultural differences, Education