Mariano Ponce and the Philippine–American War: A View of the Man and His Deeds Through His Letters from Japan

Jean Paul Zialcita


The article takes a closer look at the character and deeds of Mariano Ponce, a key actor in the Philippine struggle for independence from Spain and, later, the United States.  This is done through a detailed examination of several letters he wrote in 1899 while stationed in Japan as representative of the Philippine revolutionary government headed by General Emilio Aguinaldo. The letters allow a deepened understanding and appreciation of Ponce as revolutionary and patriot and enhance our grasp of a pivotal event in the Philippine’s past: the Philippine-American War of 1899–1902.


Mariano Ponce; Cartas sobre la Revolución; Philippine-American war; Philippine history

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