The Information and Communication Technology and Electoral Modernization: Lessons from the Philippines

  • Masataka Kimura


This essay examines the history of electoral modernization in the Philippines from its beginning in the early 1990s to the present. The essay identifies the problems the country has encountered and accomplishments it has achieved and draws lessons from these experiences which may be useful for electoral modernization in other countries with similar socioeconomic conditions. It will become clear that not only the characteristics of the technologies but also political,legal, administrative, economic, and even socio-cultural factors have significant influence, both positive and negative, on the modernization process.